I don’t think that Atom’s desciption is correct, I’m pretty sure this minimum extrusion distance window is there to avoid small infills, meaning it will not extrude stuff if said stuff’s path is shorter than 10mm in this case.
I think this number is a bit too high, usually I’d use 3 mm or less, but the bigger the print the bigger it should be, to avoid losing lots of time to tiny useless stuff.
From my point of view, the print issues are linked to the retraction part of the process, and more specifically to the prime part.
Basically, what I think is happening is that the printer retracts the filament, moves, but some plastic oozes. Then it starts printing again but since some plastic is missing it will take a little bit of time to reach the operating pressure in the nozzle, hence it won’t extrude for a few millimeters.
So, try to put something like 1 mm in the “retraction prime extra amount”. It should solve the root cause of the issue, maybe try some different values until you find the best one.*
Also, and this is an important one too, do not use the “retract before outer wall” feature. My guess: just unticking this box will solve 90% of your problems. So start by doing this.
*It is to be noted that this way of doing it isn’t the best one. Nowadays there are some better ways to do it, so if you want to do things right then you should look at the feature called linear advance (it’s a feature of Marlin firmware, it’s not in the slicer). Linear advance will give you the best results by controling actively the pressure in the nozzle.